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The domination by one ethnic group and one dominant historical background brings about racism. The dominant group looks down upon the other on the grounds of the constant factor of heredity. Racism first emerged in the 13th and 14th century when the Jews were highly segregated on the grounds of being associated with the devil and witchcraft. The racism subject in the United States is known to be one of the most contentious issues in the world. The connection that the Afro-American people have to Africa is the factor that brings about racism. Americans have for long been stratified on the basis of skin color and class. After America was declared independent in 1776, it began to liberalize itself. However, Afro-Americans, the Native Americans, and women missed out on this agenda. Up to the close of the civil war in 1865, African people had been subjected to servitude since 1619 in areas like Virginia and Jamestown[ CITATION Law00 \l 1033 ]. Those who were able to get back their freedom either by buying it ended up living like outcasts. American business economics and capitalism had its roots in the slave trade and subjecting the minority to servitude.
The capitalist ideology was further entrenched by smoking out the Native Americans from their original farms in the Deep South around the 1830s. Cotton was then cultivated in large scale on this evacuated farms. The main wealth generator for the nation was the free labor. All the benefits went to the farm owners, bankers, shipping tycoons, textile factories, insurance agencies, and the universities. The slave owners could give out slaves merely as a way to pay off debts. American slaves’ records were kept together with the equipment and livestock records. The laborers accounted for a fifth of the American national income[ CITATION Sid07 \l 1033 ]. In 1861, at the onset of the civil war, the value attached to slaves rose above the nation’s banking, factories and railroads combined. Slavery was a reality in America, widely talked about and was detrimental to the affected people especially blacks who were most preferred in the slavery business. The discrimination against blacks was seen thus making racism rampant in the United States of America.
Racism has been a menace that has been propagated in subsequent generations through history. It has led to violence in different societies. Ruthless gangs have since emerged because of the bitterness brought by racial discrimination. Considering the immense cultural diversity the world has, it is right to argue that racism is an aspect to eradicate though it is a wearisome affair. Before delving deep into the issue, it is important to be certain of the word’s meaning so as we adopt the right context and accommodate all its forms as they exist all over the world.
Since the colonial era, racism has been a problem in the United States. This racism was particularly evident whereby the European Americans were given special privileges when acquiring land, voting as well as education. Currently, although measures have been taken to ensure each citizen is treated equally regardless of their races; racism is still a major problem in the United States. With African Americans, as well as Hispanics, being the most discriminated group; other minority groups have also experienced the same. Therefore, this paper is going to discuss racism as evidenced in the United States in various sectors of the economy.
Although measures have been put in place are aimed to ensure equal opportunities for all American Citizens, the whites have been most favored in during job applications. According to professors Bertrand and Mullainathan (2004), employer prejudice is still present in the United States. This is because fewer African Americans are employed than whites, and when they are employed, they earn 25% less. Subsequently, out of 12% of the black population in the United States, only 3% are in the white collar workforce in 2017. Similarly, the black population seems to be underrepresented in various industries in the United States whereby preference during employment is given to the European whites (Singh, 2017). For instance, there was a deficit of 239% Hispanics in the automotive industry, a deficit of 550% of black people in financial services industry as well as 643% in the tech industry an indication that the whites have majorly dominated the labor market in 2017.
In educational institutions, racism has been practiced, and as a result, the performance of black students has been greatly affected. While at Preschool to high school, black students are likely to be suspended 3.6 times more than their white counterparts (Budhia, 2017). Also, African Americans as well as Latino students are more likely to unqualified tutors and are as well not enrolled in less advanced schools that do not offer advanced courses. Similarly, black students are constantly being watched by law enforcement officers because they are termed to be less innocent as compared to their white counterparts. Consequently, 48% of these black students out of 18% of their enrollment are frequently punished and suspended.
On the contrary, out of out of 43% of the white student population, only 26% are suspended. In addition, when black students report racial jokes being made to them by their white peers, no action is taken by the school authority. Consequently, black students are unable to tolerate the conditions at schools; therefore, they end up dropping out of school.
Subsequently, African Americans, as well as Hispanics, have reported poor treatment they receive from doctors in health facilities. In 2008, about 27% of blacks were discriminated against in hospitals most of whom had chronic health issues. Apart from discrimination in the health sector, African Americans are being denied mortgages by banks (Mathews, 2016). In 2014, mortgages issued to African Americans dropped to 5% while those Hispanics dropped to 9%. On the contrary, mortgages issued to whites increased by 5%, a clear indication that banks have either stopped issuing mortgages to African Americans as well as Hispanics. The following graph shows mortgage denial rates by 2016.
As suggested by Alain de Benoist (1999), the challenge in fitting the word racism in the socially compatible theories appears instrumental rather than descriptive nature. The word racist when used, it needs proper characterization. At such a circumstance, it may be defamation to the person who is called a racist. When racist allegations are directed to a person, such that they are called racist, their credibility is put on the balance, and their reputation is brought down. The tactic of smearing someone with racism allegation has been prevalent in the modern controversies. Internationally racism is similar to other words like sexism, extreme Right and fascism with which it shares context. The contemporary society associates the words with the same meaning with the absence of clarity.
The Larousse dictionary first featured the word racism in 1932. According to it, racism meant a system which was complacent to the idea that a racial group was above others. Other meanings have however overlapped the meaning from other dictionaries. One literal context suggests that racism are biological differences between various races and that one of them is superior. A racial hierarchy theory also suggests the need for maintaining a perceived superiority of a race from blending with the minority in order to remain dominant.
The existing definitions point to five major concepts of racism. The perception of the superiority of one or seldom several races, over others. Hierarchical racial organization comes after this perception. Secondly, the presence of the biologically privileged and underprivileged races, a condition cannot be changed or nullified by education or social re-organization. Thirdly, cumulative differences biologically, influence social and cultural disorders. Biological superiority, therefore, leads to the belief of a higher civilization that champions the biological supremacy. The fourth concept is that it is believed that the superior race is rightfully in that position of domination. The final component is the belief that the races that regard themselves as pure anticipate purity decline as well as other misfortunes, should they mingle with the other less privileged races. Nevertheless, the conventional definition of racism in the modern global society is when a person’s color of the skin, national, race or ethnic affiliation is superior to the others.
The Native Americans were associated with primitivism, naivety and were seen as uncivilized by Europeans. Regardless of all that, they were the landowners. With the Europeans perceiving themselves as superior and more deserving race, they drove them out of their habitat and dominated them without respect. This is the same situation in modern America where the white look down upon the blacks. Americans with white skin color are accorded much better health care, education, job opportunities among other life necessities. The superiority of the white race is even clearer by the way the law enforcement deals with the African Americans. The blacks are not heard out and are victimized because they are deemed undeserving of dignified handling[ CITATION Jon05 \l 1033 ].
Consequentially, job opportunities, sufficient housing have escaped the grasp of the blacks, coupled with favoritism of the whites by the government as well as intense social segregation. The immigrant status of the blacks has heavily attributed these problems if we go by history. The other triggering factor is the white majority in the United States. The blacks, therefore, lack the threshold to live at par with the whites.
The advantage that the whites have by their skin color gives the term white privilege. For instance, good looks are associated with the white color thereby giving them an upper hand in jobs where beauty is a sought out quality, for example, modeling or acting. Many productions have been aired on the mainstream media that have been judged to have been even better if they could hire the character of a black person. But such a thing is difficult to come by because of racism and prejudice. Financial responsibility also has the white people as the pacesetters. This has made them eligible for better benefits and discounts in American banks. Whites are entrusted with jobs and high responsibilities at various agencies because of their perceived sense of high financial accountability.
White is also imposed as an exemplary figure in disciplines like leadership and even fashion careers. Accepted black leaders with global influence are very rare, as it is for fashion icons. Their achievement is easily noticeable worldwide, and they receive extensive accolades by virtue of being white. They are also the signature image of the nation, let's say, for example, the United States. When it comes to scrutiny for security clearance, the whites are leniently taken through the procedures, and accorded dignity as opposed to blacks who have the guilty perception smeared on them. As a matter of fact, the white Americans are fully secured by police without vying for the same.
The African Americans meanwhile, face terrifying experiences because they are the minority. Because of the small share of resources in their possession, many of them are unemployed. In case of any security upset, a high body count of the black community is expected because of the unwarranted gunning down by the security enforcers. The mortality rate for the blacks due to disease is considerably higher than in the white race. The deaths expose how biased the system is in according to all Americans proper medical care. The facilities bequeathed to the black localities are inadequate and sometimes not of the needed quality. The framework availed to the minority to educate their children which makes them dwell on elementary skills.
It is because of the unequal power between the blacks and whites in America that the living standards of the two racial groups are apart. Prosperity is more attracted to the whites than it is to the African Americans because of injustice economically, politically and socially. As the black Americans agonize over their setbacks, they are left behind by the development wagon.
The economic avenues where racism thrives in are evident in a racially oppressive society. The reconciliation of the antagonizing races is very difficult because of the wide gap that exists between the two on an economic scale. The financial facilitation, education equipment, and housing fall under the economic scope. Since its onset, no elaborate economic deliberations, as in financial steps have been taken to nullify the gap between the two races towards eliminating racism.
Efforts have been noted to safeguard the civil rights of the black community. However, the economic status of the minority has been left at its sorry state. The majority have not yet made it past the poverty line. Various financial agencies have reported that the black Americans have lagged behind so much that their cumulative income is half that of the whites. Yet it is income that primarily uplifts the living standards both economic and social. Good income empowers someone to be versatile to all challenges brought by the society one lives in. As a result of their low-income generation, the blacks end up being downtrodden by the economically prosperous white Americans.
The lack of job opportunities among the members of the black community is one of the strongest catalysts to racism. The number of unemployed African Americans is twice as much as the white unemployed population. Well-paying jobs are scarce for the blacks and are normally available in very far areas from their homes. They are as a result faced by transport funds constraint, which only serve to worsen their cost of living woes.
Racism has also been brought by the vying for control of the available resources. The government has been partisan in resource allocation because it has favored the whites in putting up facilities. Whites also live in high end gated neighborhoods. The level ground is further jeopardized by the presence of proper schools providing quality education to white kids. This denies the blacks a competitive advantage against the whites in almost all areas. Their education system is poor, and resources are scarcely making the skill level of the African Americans low. It, in turn, lowers their bargaining power when they vie for job opportunities. The non-rigorous education framework and lack of employment push the black American society into crime. This further tarnishes its identity, and its value in the nation goes down.
Below average housing facilities and the exploitative rental system degrades the African American community economically. The housing and rental rates for the whites are reasonable. In the instance that a house owner is black, he or she is served with inflated property tax which entrenches racism. The black community faces economic challenges in reality where they do not match the white Americans because of financial analysis setbacks that have been tactfully brought in by the dominant white system.
Historically, the foundation of the United States is the racial depletion of Native Americans whose major facilitation was the slave trade profits. The Mexican war (1840) further entrenched this by getting support from supremacist ideologies of the whites. In the modern world, the hatred of whites toward the blacks has entrenched capitalism. The lowly paid black workers on white's payrolls have propped up the capitalism which is manned by white race in the United States[ CITATION Kni06 \l 1033 ]. The whites intend to maximize the symbiosis that exists between capitalism and racial discrimination in order to get as high returns as possible as they continue to hold down African Americans from progress.
The economic factors that lead to racial discrimination are majorly in the housing and employment dimensions. The gap in economic status between the white and black Americans is highly visible which causes and catalyzes racism at the same time, lack of employment, unfairness, and dissent to minority discrimination has led to the emergence of retaliatory criminal gangs in the united states which are a threat to the nation’s security.
Solutions to Racism
Formulation and preaching of reconstructive ideologies can help eliminate racism in the society. Since racism is a problem that is more of psychological, vigorous awareness campaigns against racism should be carried out in every corner of the society. The campaigns would involve highlights of the real circumstances of racism. The campaigns should also emphasize on the need for representation of all community factions in the fight against racism for the sake of the nation. Racism is known to thrive in ignorance of its presence in the society. Open minded individuals should freely about it without getting victimized.
The laws which have been to be very allowing to racial discrimination should be done away with and new laws put in place. The new laws should adequately address racial discrimination circumstances to keep matters from getting worse because of the absence of a properly guiding law for the handling of such cases. On the same note, African Americans should be taken through a fair trial and with the dignity they deserve. The prison sentences awarded to black offenders in the United States should be rational and not exaggerated. Instead, severe penalties should be directed to those found culpable of engaging in racism on different scales. Simply put, the law needs to be revisited and extensive enacted upon it, for it to be binding and address the issue of racism better.
The government should also consider directing more financial support and rationalize the resource control of resources especially to the black community in America. Giving financial support to the minority can be a very bold step by the government in eliminating racism. Leveling quality offered in education, banking, security, and housing can help to cover the existing gap hence bringing the two races closer. The government should also step in impartially to oversee the awarding of employment and study opportunities to see to it that there is no favoritism.
The social disparities that arise from racism can be nullified if the above suggestions are considered and acted upon. The white community has for the longest time taken advantage of the societal acceptance of their supremacy to oppress the minority. This perception should be erased. The societal awareness and education will provoke the minds of the dormant members of how dangerous racism can be. Education will instill in the minority, the sense of fighting for equity. Creating awareness will take off the prejudice that negatively affects the society.
The enacting of elaborate laws with strict penalties attached will help to extinguish any racism tendencies. The frameworks that conform to racism will be shut since they will be deemed illegal. The racial individuals will be pulled out of their comfort zone to a harsh non-racism reality. The minority will leave freely without harboring discrimination or persecution fears. The law should purpose to harmonize every aspect in order to have a level playground for all.
The real intervention to the racism problem lies in the economic redress in the white and black American communities. The oppressed minority as expected will have a lesser capacity for dealing with racial discrimination because of their limited financial abilities. The government should consider weighing in to balance the social scale by according more financial support to the members of the black community in America. The societal balance should do the trick of creating clear avenues to bring change. The living standards among the African Americans would also be taken up for them to gain ground and the competitive ability against their compatriots of the white race. Giving equal chances without looking at the race will give a level playing field for all the citizens. Racial discrimination will, as a result, be outdone. The country will start to appreciate merit and individual brilliance instead of the color of one's skin. This kind of competition is healthy, and the United States as a nation will be in line to reap big and on its way to economic prosperity.
In conclusion, as evidenced, racism is still a major problem in the United States. Therefore, more proper measures as well as policies ought to be put in place to address the issue so as to ensure that each citizen is treated equally regardless of their races.
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2. Budhia, S. (2017, December 28). Racial Prejudice in the American Education System: Effects of Racism on Black Students Lives and Academic Success. Retrieved from https://openamericas.org/2017/12/27/racial-prejudice-in-the-american-education-system-effects-of-racism-on-black-students-lives-and-academic-success/De Benoist, A. (1999). What is racism?. Telos, 1999(114), 11-48.
3. Jonas, G. (2005). Freedom's sword: the NAACP and the struggle against racism in America, 1909-1969. Routledge.
4. Knight, A. (2006). Racism, revolution, and indigenismo: Mexico, 1910-1940. The Idea of Race in Latin America, 1870–1940, 71-113.
5. Lawrence, D. O. S. J. S. (2000). Racialized politics: The debate about racism in America. University of Chicago Press Mathews, C. (2016, June 2). Heres Why Big Banks Are Lending to Fewer Blacks and Hispanics. Retrieved from http://fortune.com/2016/06/02/banks-lending-minorities/Singh, P. (2017, April 01). Racism In US Job Market: Blacks, Hispanics Underrepresented In White Collar Jobs, Tech Industry Leads. Retrieved from https://www.ibtimes.com/racism-us-job-market-blacks-hispanics-underrepresented-white-collar-jobs-tech-2518568
6. Sidanius, J., & Pratto, F. (2007). Racism and support of free-market capitalism: A cross-cultural analysis. Political Psychology, 381-401.
Digital marketing communication refers to the practice of marketing of goods and services by use of digital technologies, mostly on the Internet. The marketing concepts have been transformed due to the digital revolution that led to the rise of digital marketing that has led to the development of the marketing world. The role of marketers has also changed significantly since they are currently required to develop the policies that would lead to the boosting of the customer awareness of the existing products in the markets. Moreover, the perception of marketing has changed to the identification of needs and finding of ways to satisfy the needs.
Today, digital marketers are over-relying on social media as a platform for lead generation. They are focusing too much on page inquiries, follower growth and mentions. However, this is a cause for concern given recent trends in social media trends such as Facebook’s recent algorithm overhaul that affected the original reach of business social media pages[ CITATION Cha17 \l 1033 ].
Types of Digital Marketing communication
We are leaving for a much developed time where technology and internet services are recorded to have a significant impact on the current way of life. The effect is facilitated by the fact that the world is based on business and business activities and technology is recorded to influence business activities as well[ CITATION Cha15 \l 1033 ]. The involvement of technology and advanced internet services has been the reason behind the introduction of digital marketing. In digital marketing, there are different forms of digital marketing platforms that a business owner might use; some tend to be common more than others. Some of these online digital marketing platforms include;
After the developed technological devices and advanced internet services started working together, they facilitated the introduction of social media. This kind of platform has not been there for long but the impact that it has managed to gain from the short period it has been working has made it receive such a significant awareness. Of late a significant number of people are joining some of the influential social media platforms on a daily basis[ CITATION Che16 \l 1033 ]. Initially, when it was introduced, it was used for interaction purpose of people at a long distance, but after been recorded that it has a significant number of online users, then businesses tend to use this as a way of getting potential clients.
Search engine optimization (SEO)
Search engine optimization, not a marketing tool but one of its top duties in a business operation is to market their products and services. This kind of digital marketing deals mostly with the ranks of the company that has implemented it in their operations. Their servers have created an online search engine like the Google Search where a client can search any business they want and get access to it[ CITATION Gup18 \l 1033 ]. It is an idea that is most preferred if you are after being on top of your competitors on an indeed specified market structure.
Pay per click
How these digital marketing works are you post your advert over different online platforms that mostly revolves around social sites, and you pay people to like the advert. Pay per click and SEM in SEO are closely related in that the more likes or views you get in your advert, the higher chances you have of being on top of the search engines[ CITATION Rob16 \l 1033 ].
Example of digital marketing websites
Airbnb is digital marketing platform founded by Joe Gebbiawhich engages in offering hospitality services to its customers. The clients are able to rent or lease short-term accommodation lodges with less effort and strain. Its presence in the business world has saved tourists and travelers the task of physically moving from town to town in search of short-term residing places. These lodgings include; home stays, hotel rooms, vacation rentals, or apartment rentals. Surprisingly, the company does not own any of these facilities. Its role is too broke and seeks the accommodations from the owners on behalf of the guests[ CITATION Yan13 \l 1033 ]. In so doing, it also promotes the facilities of the owners. Therefore, their source of income is from the commissions from both the hosts and guests for every booking.
The company is largely characterized by three million listed lodges, in sixty-five thousand cities and one hundred and ninety-one countries. The host is responsible for setting the cost of the lodges. The Company has its website and mobile applications that are compatible with various operating systems. The cost of registering and creating an account is zero. For every booking, the company charges the host 3-5% commission and the guest 6-12% commission. An additional charge to guests for ‘experiences' such as excursions is included by the host out of which the Airbnb earns 20% commission. Upon logging into an account, the guest selects the host menu and gets to see the offered services. The host is the one who determines the prices of the lodgings with guidance from the Airbnb Company[ CITATION Rya16 \l 1033 ]. For each booking, a host has 24 hours to accept or decline a booking. If space is reserved, the host coordinates the time to meet and the contact information with the guest.
Humans are naturally adventurous, and people will always like to tour various parts of the world to fulfill this urge. The financial capabilities of these individuals are what determines where they visit, how often, and the length of time they spend in those places. This is what forms the foundation of the Airbnb Company together with the related companies. With the demographic and income data we can approximate the tourist and travelers market at disposal. In the United States, $23 billion was spent on the vacation rentals in the year 2012. This figure accounts for only one-fifth of the United States lodging market. Integrating the market from other countries would push this figure to about $80 billion as at 2017. This is the current market which is expected to grow as economies of various countries continue to grow.
Companiespracticingdigital marketing communication
Great coffee and amazing varieties together with excellent staff are what comes into the mind when one hears the name ‘Starbucks'. To the knowledge of only a few, Starbucks is well known for its killer digital and social media marketing strategies. The company's social media pages and sites including Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and even Pinterest are all active (JAIN&SHAH, 2017). Below is a compilation of facts about Starbucks and its digital and social media strategy as well as the way it employs them to involve customers.
1. Facebook-Starbucks Company has a record of more than thirty-seven million likes and 31 check-ins (JAIN&SHAH, 2017).The company is not very active on Facebook (does not post very often) but when it posts it ensures that the posts are ultra-clever and quite eye-catching thus creating a perfect balance between the fun consumers contest for (helpful tips for the lovers of coffee) and sales messages that are finely crafted to entice their customers[ CITATION Jär18 \l 1033 ].
2. Twitter- the Company has followers who are over 11.8 million and more than eighty-three thousand tweets (JAIN&SHAH, 2017). Starbucks uses a way that is somehow unorthodox but quite smart to connect with its customers. Most of its tweets are retweets from the customers who mention them in their tweets. The company keenly monitors its customer base to notice and handle any complaints before they get noticed by others. If complaint tweets are noticed by others especially its competitors, they can be used against them thus painting a bad image on the company.
3. Instagram- Starbucks Company boasts of over 13.3 million followers and more than 1200 posts (JAIN&SHAH, 2017).Instagram is one of its social media strongholds. The company posts high-quality pictures which are amazingly clicked serving as eye candies for many people. In addition, the company has a library of soothing images which directly relate to the lovers of coffee community.
4. Pinterest- through this social media site, the company has differentiated itself clearly from other brands having almost 290, 000 followers and more than 3.3 million pins[ CITATION Yor16 \l 1033 ].The company has managed to maintain one of the best accounts on Pinterest with its barista flavors which are visually appealing and by posting coffee gadgets that are cool and amazing recipes. It also posts some of the coziest, luxurious and peaceful places where one can enjoy their mesmerizing coffee. Customers get attracted through this plan and even more fulfilled at the end as they can manage to make their own coffee.
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Järvinen, J., Tollinen, A., Karjaluoto, H., & Jayawardhena, C. (2018). DIGITAL AND SOCIALMEDIA MARKETING USAGE IN B2B INDUSTRIAL SECTION. Marketing Management Journal, 22(2) Roberts, M.L., and Sashay, D., 2016. Internet Marketing: Integrating online and offlinestrategies. Cengage Learning.
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